CS302 GDB Solution Spring 2012

Importance of Memory Elements in Digital Circuits


We know that there are circuits in which theoutput at any instant of time depends not only on the present input of thesystem but also on the past outputs obtained by the system. Such logic circuitsare called sequential logic circuits. We know that sequential logic circuitdepends also on the past output of the system. So they require a memory elementto store the past outputs. For this purpose the flip-flops are used. 
Flip-flops are nothing but thememory elements used in the sequential circuits for storing the past output ofthe system. A flip-flop circuit can maintain a binary state indefinitely untildirected by any input signal to switch states. So proved that memory elementare essential for digital circuits because these memory elements are the backbone of digital circuits and these are required to store the outputs

Solution 2:

Digital electronics represent signals by discrete bands of analog levels, rather than by a continuous range. All levels within a band represent the same signal state. Relatively small changes to the analog signal levels due to manufacturing tolerance, signal attenuation or parasitic noise do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry.
In most cases the number of these states is two, and they are represented by two voltage bands: one near a reference value (typically termed as “ground” or zero volts) and a value near the supply voltage, corresponding to the “false” (“0”) and “true” (“1”) values of the Boolean domain respectively.
Digital techniques are useful because it is easier to get an electronic device to switch into one of a number of known states than to accurately reproduce a continuous range of values.
Digital electronic circuits are usually made from large assemblies of logic gates, simple electronic representations of Boolean logic functions.



One advantage of digital circuits when compared to analog circuits is  signals represented digitally can be transmitted without degradation due to noise. For example, a continuous audio signal, transmitted as a sequence of 1s and 0s, can be reconstructed without error provided the noise picked up in transmission is not enough to prevent identification of the 1s and 0s. An hour of music can be stored on a compact disc using about 6 billion binary digits.
In a digital system, a more precise representation of a signal can be obtained by using more binary digits to represent it. While this requires more digital circuits to process the signals, each digit is handled by the same kind of hardware. In an analog system, additional resolution requires fundamental improvements in the linearity and noise characteristics of each step of the signal chain.
Computer-controlled digital systems can be controlled by software, allowing new functions to be added without changing hardware. Often this can be done outside of the factory by updating the product’s software. So, the product’s design errors can be corrected after the product is in a customer’s hands.
Information storage can be easier in digital systems than in analog ones. The noise-immunity of digital systems permits data to be stored and retrieved without degradation. In an analog system, noise from aging and wear degrade the information stored. In a digital system, as long as the total noise is below a certain level, the information can be recovered perfectly.