CS607 Artificial Intelligence Final Paper March 2014

un-supervised learning

Clustering is a form of unsupervised learning, in which the training data is

available but without the classification information or class labels. The task of

clustering is to identify and group similar individual data elements based on some

measure of similarity.

write the name of predicate action?

the predicate itself, the pre-condition, and post-condition predicates.

what is STRIPS?

STRIP is one of the founding languages developed particularly for planning. Let us understand planning to a better level by seeing what a planning language can represent.

comparison b/t brain and computer?

Elaborate the five parts of fuzzy inference system?

Five parts of the fuzzy inference process

 Fuzzification of the input variables

 Application of fuzzy operator in the antecedent (premises)

 Implication from antecedent to consequent

 Aggregation of consequents across the rules

 Defuzzification of output

Write the main phases of linear sequance of ESDLC?

The main phases of the

linear sequence are

• Planning

• Knowledge acquisition and analysis

• Knowledge design

• Code

• Knowledge verification

• System evaluation

Pattern recognition in computer vision?

Computer vision encompases topics from pattern recognition, machine learning,

geometry, image processing, artificial intelligence, linear algebra and other


backword chain steps define?

1. Start with the goal.

2. Goal may be in WM initially, so check and you are done if found!

3. If not, then search for goal in the THEN part of the rules (match

conclusions, rather than premises). This type of rule is called goal rule.

4. Check to see if the goal rule’s premises are listed in the working memory.

5. Premises not listed become sub-goals to prove.

6. Process continues in a recursive fashion until a premise is found that is

not supported by a rule, i.e. a premise is called a primitive, if it cannot be

concluded by any rule

7. When a primitive is found, ask user for information about it. Back track and

use this information to prove sub-goals and subsequently the goal.

Mcqz form clips and fuzzi systems mostly

(1)What is Goal in STRIPS given an example 2marks


Goal is also represented in the same manner as a state. For example, if the goalof a planning problem is to be at the hotel with radio, it is represented as,

at(hotel) _ have(radio)

(2) elaborate the inductive learning 2mrks

Inductive learning

Inductive learning takes examples and generalizes rather than starting with existing knowledge.

(3) Boolean logic is a subset of fuzzi logic if u agree give reason?

Fuzzy logic is a superset of conventional (Boolean) logic that has been extended to handle the concept of partial truth — truth values between “completely true” and “completely false”.

(4) ESDLC steps?


• Feasibility study • Rapid prototyping • Alpha system (in-house verification) • Beta system (tested by users) • Maintenance and evolution


(5) write 3 phases of  ES life cycle


Genetic Algorithm is inspired by the structure and/or functional aspects of the biological neural networks and it consist of an interconnected group of artificial neurons. Do you agree or not? 5 marks

(7) advantages of neural network?


• Excellent for pattern recognition

 Excellent classifiers

 Handles noisy data well

  Good for generalization



Who does neural network resemble the human brain.

It resembles the brain in two respects:

• Knowledge is acquired by the network through a learning process (called


• Interneuron connection strengths known as synaptic weights are used to

store the knowledge


(9)Elaborate version space ?

Version space is a set of all the hypotheses that are consistent with all the

training examples. When we are given a set of training examples D, it is possible

that there might be more than one hypotheses from the hypothesis space that are

consistent with all the training examples.

(10)generic algorithm inspired  by the and/or structure of biological neural networks

Ifu r agree give reason 5 mrk

Elaborate the 2 main branches of space but I forget the name of space ma be hypothesis space or version space I don’t knw 5 mrks