Q1. Read the passages carefully, decide the paragraph development technique from the below options and mention it in the given blank against each paragraph. (10)
- Compare and contrast
- Cause and effect
a. In recent decades, cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth’s population lives in urban areas. There are several reasons for this occurrence. First, the increasing industrialization of the nineteenth century resulted in the creation of many factory jobs, which tended to be located in cities. These jobs, with their promise of a better material life, attracted many people from rural areas. Second, there were many schools established to educate the children of the new factory laborers. The promise of a better education persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move to the cities. Finally, as the cities grew, people established places of leisure, entertainment, and culture, such as sports stadiums, theaters, and museums. For many people, these facilities made city life appear more interesting than life on the farm, and therefore drew them away from rural communities.
Technique Used: Cause effect
b. My hometown and my college town have several things in common. First, both are small rural communities. For example, my hometown, Gridlock, has a population of only about 10,000 people. Similarly, my college town, Subnormal, consists of about 11,000 local residents. This population swells to 15,000 people when the college students are attending classes. A second way in which these two towns are similar is that they are both located in rural areas. Gridlock is surrounded by many acres of farmland which is devoted mainly to growing corn and soybeans. In the same way, Subnormal lies in the center of farmland which is used to raise dogs and cattle.
Technique Used: Compare contrast
c. The word “literature” evokes the image of a book-lined shelf, or an evening spent in a chair with a novel. While written literature has been around since the advent of print, it has always taken on different forms. At its most basic, literature simply means written work, although some would argue that the term refers specifically to published works, or even to works that have garnered some critical acclaim. High literature connotes literature that has been accepted as academically beneficial. “Low” literature, like some young adult fiction, doesn’t always have the intellectual value of high literature, but there is some crossover- the novels of Stevenson and Twain were originally written to a young adult audience but are considered classics today.
Technique Used: Classification
d. This morning was crazy. My alarm clock was set for PM instead of AM, so I woke up really late. I just threw on some clothes and ran out the door. I rode my bike as fast as I could and thought that I was going to be late for sure, but when I got there, everyone was outside and there were fire trucks all lined up in front of school. I guess somebody pulled the fire alarm before class started. It worked out though, because nobody really noticed or minded that I was tardy.
Technique Used: Chronological
e. Students are not allowed to chew gum in my class. While some students think that I am just being mean, there are many good reasons for this rule. First, some irresponsible students make messes with their gum. They may leave it on the bottoms of desks, drop it on the floor, or put it on other people’s property. Another reason why I don’t allow students to chew gum is because it is a distraction. When they are allowed to chew gum, students are more worried about having it, popping it, chewing it, and snapping it then they are in listening, writing, reading, and learning. This is why I don’t allow students to chew gum in my class.
Technique Used: Cause effect
Q2. Place the given meanings against the clichés which they explain. (5)
- Return to a previous position
- In all important respects
- Meet the required standards
- Difficult introduction to a new job or activity
|At the end of the day||Finally|
|Comes full circle||Rclum to a previous position|
|Fit for purpose||Meet the required srandreds|
|A baptism of fire||Difficult introduction to a new job or activity|
|To all intents and purposes||In all important respect|
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