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ENG101 English Comprehension Assignment No1 Solution Fall 2012

Q.1 Read the following passage and answer the questions below: (10)

A wide term used for mercy killing is “Euthanasia” —taking the life of a hopelessly ill or injured individual in order to end his or her suffering. Mercy killing represents a serious ethical dilemma. The word euthanasia is of Greek origin and literally means “a good death.” The American Heritage Dictionary defines it as “the act of killing a person painlessly for reasons of mercy.” Such killing can be done through active means, such as administering a lethal injection, or by passive means, such as withholding medical care or food and water.

In recent years in the United States, there have been numerous cases of active euthanasia in the news. They usually involve the deliberate killing of ill or incapacitated persons by relatives or friends who plead that they can no longer bear to see their loved ones suffer. Other patients may request euthanasia to avoid the weakness and loss of mental faculties that some diseases cause, and many feel these wishes should be respected. Although such killings are a crime, the perpetrators are often dealt with leniently by our legal system, and the media usually portrays them as compassionate heroes who take personal risks to save another from unbearable suffering.

Euthanasia also seems to contradict one of the most basic principles of morality, which is that killing is wrong. Viewed from a traditional Judeo-Christian point of view, euthanasia is murder and a blatant violation of the biblical commandment “Thou shalt not kill.” The seeming acceptance of active forms of euthanasia is alarming, but we face a bigger, more insidious threat from passive forms of euthanasia. Every year, in hospitals and nursing homes around the country, there are growing numbers of documented deaths caused by caregivers withholding life-sustaining care, including food and water, from vulnerable patients who cannot speak for themselves.

While it is illegal to kill someone directly, for example with a gun or knife, in many cases the law has put its stamp of approval on causing death by omitting needed care. Further, many states have “living will” laws designed to protect those who withhold treatment, and there have been numerous court rulings which have approved of patients being denied care and even starved and dehydrated to death.

Many such deaths occur quietly within the confines of hospitals and nursing homes; they can be kept hidden from the public. Most euthanasia victims are old or very ill, so their deaths might be attributed to a cause other than the denial of care that really killed them. Further, it is often relatives of the patient who request that care be withheld. In one court case, the court held that decisions to withhold life-sustaining care may be made not only by close family members but also by a number of third parties, and that such decisions need not be reviewed by the judicial system if there is no disagreement between decision makers and medical staff. The court went so far as to rule that a nursing home may not refuse to participate in the fatal withdrawal of food and water from an incompetent patient.

Questions

After carefully reading the above text, choose the correct option from the following:

1) In this passage, the tone of the author can best be described as

A. pleading

B. argumentative

C. compassionate

D. emphatic

E. empathetic

 

2) What reason, in paragraph 3, the author gives for finding starvation and dehydration induced euthanasia to be “more insidious”?

 

A. euthanasia is legally considered to be a criminal act

B. the public’s attitude toward euthanasia is becoming more positive

C. the patient has asked to die with dignity

D. it often involves those who cannot protest

E. its perpetrators are viewed as kindly caregivers

 

3) What is the best synonym for insidious as per its usage in paragraph 3?

 

A. mischievous

B. seductive

C. treacherous

D. apparent

E. cumulative

 

4) Fill in the following blank:

 

While it is illegal to kill someone directly, for example with a gun or knife, in many cases

the law has put its stamp of approval on causing death —–.

 

A. by firing someone

B. by throwing someone

C. by poisoning someone

D. by omitting needed care

E. by strangling someone

 

5) The author maintains that death by withholding care is

 

A. largely confined to hospitals

B. largely confined to the terminally ill

C. often requested by family members

D. approved by living wills

E. difficult to prove if prosecuted
Solution:

1) In this passage, the tone of the author can best be described as

Answer
A. pleading

2) What reason, in paragraph 3, the author gives for finding starvation and dehydration induced euthanasia to be “more insidious”?

Answer

D. it often involves those who cannot protest

3) What is the best synonym for insidious as per its usage in paragraph 3?

Answer
C. treacherous

4) Fill in the following blank:

While it is illegal to kill someone directly, for example with a gun or knife, in many cases
the law has put its stamp of approval on causing death —–.

Answer
C. by poisoning someone

5) The author maintains that death by withholding care is

Answer
B. largely confined to the terminally ill

Q2: Read the following passages and find out the dissimilarities between a dictionary and an encyclopedia on the basis of GIVEN PASSAGES. Try to write the dissimilarities in your own words. (5)

A dictionary is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information; or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon. According to Nielsen (2008) a dictionary may be regarded as a lexicographical product that is characterized by three significant features: (1) it has been prepared for one or more functions; (2) it contains data that have been selected for the purpose of fulfilling those functions; and (3) its lexicographic structures link and establish relationships between the data so that they can meet the needs of users and fulfill the functions of the dictionary. A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries do not contain information about words that are used in language for general purposes—words used by ordinary people in everyday situations. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study.

An encyclopedia is a type of reference work – a compendium holding a summary of information from either all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries, which are usually accessed alphabetically by article name. Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries, which focus on linguistic information about words, encyclopedia articles focus on factual information to cover the thing or concept for which the article name stands. The modern encyclopedia evolved out of dictionaries around the 17th century. Indeed, the purpose of an encyclopedia is to collect knowledge disseminated around the globe; to set forth its general system to the men with whom we live, and transmit it to those who will come after us, so that the work of preceding centuries will not become useless to the centuries to come; and so that our offspring, becoming better instructed, will at the same time become more virtuous and happy, and that we should not die without having rendered a service to the human race in the future years to come.

Solution:

A dictionary is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information; or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon. According to Nielsen (2008 ) a dictionary may be regarded as a lexicographical product that is characterized by three significant features: (1) it has been prepared for one or more functions; (2) it contains data that have been selected for the purpose of fulfilling those functions; and (3) its lexicographic structures link and establish relationships between the data so that they can meet the needs of users and fulfill the functions of the dictionary. A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries do not contain information about words that are used in language for general purposes—words used by ordinary people in everyday situations. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study.
An encyclopedia is a type of reference work – a compendium holding a summary of information from either all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries, which are usually accessed alphabetically by article name. Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries, which focus on linguistic information about words, encyclopedia articles focus on factual information to cover the thing or concept for which the article name stands. The modern encyclopedia evolved out of dictionaries around the 17th century. Indeed, the purpose of an encyclopedia is to collect knowledge disseminated around the globe; to set forth its general system to the men with whom we live, and transmit it to those who will come after us, so that the work of preceding centuries will not become useless to the centuries to come; and so that our offspring, becoming better instructed, will at the same time become more virtuous and happy, and that we should not die without having rendered a service to the human race in the future years to come.
Dictionary
Dictionary contains words of language it arrange alphabetically provide information about the word’s meaning, pronunciation and provide definition.
Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia contains articles on various topics, it carry all areas of knowledge, difference aspects, provide history

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