Q1: Why Muslim scientists give much attention to medicine and public health care? 5 Marks
In Islam, the human body is a source of appreciation, as it is created by Almighty Allah (God). How it functions, how to keep it clean and safe, how to prevent diseases from attacking it or cure those diseases, have been important issues for Muslims.
Ibn Sina (d. 1037), better known to the West as Avicenna, was perhaps the greatest physician until the modern era. His famous book, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, remained a standard textbook even in Europe, for over 700 years. Ibn Sina’s work is still studied and built upon in the East.
Prophet Muhammad himself urged people to “take medicines for your diseases”, as people at that time were reluctant to do so. He also said,
“God created no illness, except that He has established for it a cure, except for old age. When the antidote is applied, the patient will recover with the permission of God.”
Al-Razi, known in the West as Rhazes, the famous physician and scientist, (d. 932) was one of the greatest physicians in the world in the Middle Ages. He stressed empirical observation and clinical medicine and was unrivalled as a diagnostician. He also wrote a treatise on hygiene in hospitals. Kahaf Abul-Qasim Al-Sahabi was a very famous surgeon in the eleventh century, known in Europe for his work, Concessio (Kitab al-Tasrif).
Other significant contributions were made in pharmacology, such as Ibn Sina’s Kitab al-Shifa’ (Book of Healing), and in public health. Every major city in the Islamic world had a number of excellent hospitals, some of them teaching hospitals, and many of them were specialized for particular diseases, including mental and emotional. The Ottomans were particularly noted for their building of hospitals and for the high level of hygiene practiced in them
Q2: How did the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) treat Abu Sufyan at the victory of Makkah? 5 Marks
Abu Sufyaan Bin Harab had been acting as the ring leader of prophet’s enemies. In the holy battle of Uhad it was who led the enemy forces as their Chief. He had prepared all kinds of plots to root out Islam and its followers. In the holy battle of Khandaq (Trenches), he had organized the enemy coalition front against the prophet.
He brought four thousand strong fighting forces from Mecca. From the other end of Medinah he invited the coalition of Arab tribes under the leadership of Oainah Bin Hafs Fuzari to launch attack with a force of another four thousand soldiers. From the third side six thousand armed fighters laid the siege. The joint operation was conceived and supervised by Abu Sufyaan himself. In addition, he instigated shrewdly Banu Quraizah who despite their smaller numbers as compared to Muslims were strategically located at the far end of Medinah, to attack the Muslim forces from their back contravening their earlier peace treaty with Medinites. Then Allah Almighty sent thunder storm causing the enemy to get scattered and retreat in defeat. On the occasion of Victory of Mecca the same ring leader of the enemy, one day prior to fall of Mecca, came in disguise to the Muslim camp in the place called Mur-Al-Zahran to spy and assess the Muslim military might. The spy was caught red handed and brought in front of the prophet. Many of the companions of the prophet submitted to him the plea to allow them to execute the prisoner who was no less important a person than the chief of enemy Army himself. But lo! The next day Abu Sufyaan came to prophet and embraced Islam voluntarily. The respect shown to him and the honorable deal he got was indeed amazing and beyond comprehension of an ordinary mortal. A declaration was publicly announced, “Whoever enters the grand mosque of Mecca (Masjid-e-Haram) shall be spared, whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyaan shall be spared and whoever shuts his door too shall be spared.” The declaration decreeing the house of Abu Sufyann to be treated at par with grand mosque of Mecca in respect of refuge bestowed upon him such an honor that surpassed any other award that a man could aspire to achieve at that time.
Q3: One Muslim has right over his Muslim brother. Describe five rights of one Muslim over another in the light of Hadith. 5 Marks
The bond that connects believing hearts in the strongest and deepest way is the bond of brotherhood originating from the principle of belief and taqwa. This is one of the best bounties granted to believers by Allah. This state is expressed as follows in a verse:
“And hold fast, all together by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah’s favor on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make his signs clear to you: that ye may be guided.” (Aal-i Imran, 3/103)
In Islam, brotherhood is based on the basis of faith; therefore, all kinds of artificial discrimination and boasting that will destroy friendship among believers are regarded as haram. The criterion of taqwa replaced all kinds of values based on Jahiliyya like race, lineage and pedigree; thus, social brotherhood and harmony were ensured. The verse regarding the issue has the property to end all kinds of discussion:
“… Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you…”(al-Hujurat, 49/13).
The solidarity of believing men and women based on faith and taqwa is mentioned as a necessity of brotherhood. This solidarity is deemed necessary in order to make the principle of belief and taqwa dominant in individual and social life. As a matter of fact, it is stated that Allah will help the people who come together with this aim:
“The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil: they observe regular prayers, practice regular charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger…” (at-Tawba, 9/71).
The Prophet (pbuh) states the following in a hadith:
“None of you will have belief till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself.”(Bukhari, Iman, 7)
Hz. Ali (r.a) states the following: “Your real brother is the one that is together with you, that agrees to harm his own self just to avail you and that tries to help you when you are in trouble even if it is harmful for him.“
Believers are like a perfect and sound building whose parts are interlocked in terms of friendship or like a single body whose elements and atoms are interconnected. When one organ of the body becomes ill, the whole body feels the same pain; similarly, when a believer, even if he is in a very remote part of the world, suffers, his other believing brothers feel it. The Prophet (pbuh) expresses this commitment of believers to one another as follows:“The commitment of a believer to another believer is like a building whose parts complement one another.” It is stated that when Abu Musa al-Ash’ari narrated the hadith above, he clasped his hands with the fingers interlaced to describe it: “You see the believers as regards their being merciful among themselves and showing love among themselves and being kind, resembling one body, so that, if any part of the body is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness and fever with it.”(see Bukhari, Salat, 88)
It is necessary for a believer to help his believing brother in any situation. The Prophet stated the following in a hadith:“Help your brother, whether he is an oppressor or he is an oppressed one.” When he was asked how to help whenhe is an oppressor, the Prophet said,“By preventing him from oppressing others. This is how to help him then.” (Bukhari, Mazalim, 4; Muslim, Birr, 62)
According to what is reported from Hz. Ali (r.a.), the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated the following:
“A Muslim has six rights over another Muslim. When he meets a Muslim, he greets him; when a Muslim invites him, he accepts his invitation; when a Muslim sneezes and says, ‘alhamdulillah (praise be to Allah)’, he says, ‘yarhamukallah (may Allah have mercy on you)’; when a Muslim becomes ill, he visits him; when a Muslim dies, he takes part in his funeral; he loves for his Muslim brother what he loves for himself.” (Darimi, Istidhan: 5; Ibn Majah, Janaiz: 43)