The NGOs of all levels are playing a role in uplift of society in general and poorest of the poor in particular. Especially, the intermediaries NGOs have the agenda of providing help in resolving the economic and cultural differences among local people, at grass root. They bridge the gap between local and technical knowledge in the efforts to find long-term solutions, which are widely accepted by target groups. In this way new approaches are being applied in solving problems and disseminating knowledge to other organizations through connecting them with local organizations by way of joining networks or building links with international organizations.
a) Being a development practitioner you are required to identify the role of NGOs in developing countries. (05)
ROLES OF NGO ACCORDING TO THE EXPECTATION OF PEOPLE
NGOs play a critical role in all areas of development. People and policy makers are agree on one thing that NGOs play a very important role in development. Role of NGOs vary over the years as the policy of government changes. NGOs are almost dependent on polices of government.
Socio economic development is a shared responsibility of both i.e. government and NGOs. Role of NGOs are complementary but vary according to polices of government.
If we closely pursue the voluminous literature on NGOs many roles can be found according to the expectations of people.
The major development roles ascribed to NGOs are to act as:
- Planner and implementer of development programmers,
- Mobiliser of local resources and initiative,
- Catalyst, enabler and innovator,
- Builder of self reliant sustainable society,
- Mediator of people and government,
- Supporter and partner of government programme in activating delivery system implementing rural development programmes, etc.,
- Agents of information,
- Factor of improvement of the poor, and
- Facilitator of development education, training, professionalisation, etc.
Basically NGOs role is to prepare people for change. They empower the people to overcome psychological problem and opposition of oppress. Its role cannot be denied.
OBJECTIVES OF NGOS IN DEVELOPMENT
NGO is one of the alternatives available among various development organizations and one of the inputs among technical, financial and other resources, major merits of NGOs are emerging from their limited scale of operation; the sporadic efforts of NGOs can be consolidated and made more effective. Still the primary role of NGO is at the local level as mobilizes of people and their resources for an indigenous self-sustainable development. And at this level it can be a pioneer, mediator power broker, catalyst and has many other roles. NGOs and their long lomerations also are very in playing their role as advocates in policy issues beyond local level-national or even international level. Proper assessment of expected an actual roles of NGOs enable us to make them an effective alternative in the development process. However, small and sporadic NGOs are, they are valued in a pluralist society as an alternative approach to conventional system of attaining human well being and as such NGOs have a pivotal role to play in any society especially where institutions are alienated and development is dehumanized.
An Ngo is nowadays not expected to deliver directly some benefits to people, but to motivate people, mobilize resources, initiate leadership, and participate in development programmes for self reliance. An NGO is only an enabler and as and when a society is made self reliant, role of NGO is shifted to another place where NGO service is required. But NGO works in relief and delivery of public goods as direct suppliers and majority of the development NGOs are also involved directly in productive activities. The roles of NGOs an enabler or catalyst for self reliant society and as supplier or implementer is relevant where bureaucracy is indifferent or inefficient, programs lack flexibility and cost effectiveness poor are ignorant, elite are ambitious, successes and services are pre conditions for motivation etc.
b) As you know Aurat foundation is famous NGO of our country .It has claimed that this organization worked for the development of women in this regard you are required to analyze the role of this NGO in our country and support your answer with the help of real time examples. (10)
Aurat Foundation is a national organisation with the largest district level network in the country. AF is a civil society organisation working for women’s empowerment and citizens’ rights with the collaboration of citizens’ groups and organisations to provide information, build capacity and undertake advocacy for women’s issues and for good governance in Pakistan. The goals of the Foundation are to:
- Assist women to acquire greater control over knowledge, resources and institutions.
- Influence social attitudes and behaviour for a sensitive and responsive social environment to address women’s concerns and development.
- Develop a strong network of civil society organisations to support women at the community and district level.
- Undertake advocacy with public servants and public representatives for development policies and planning as well as supportive legislation that increases women’s access to development opportunities and resources.
- Facilitate women’s greater participation in political processes and governance.
- Develop and strengthen networks of citizens’ organisations for strengthening citizens’ struggle for accountable and transparent governance and participatory democracy in Pakistan.