“The trouble with management as a field of study and practice is that it has no scientific base.” Mr. Najmi, a space scientist, said to his laboratory head, Mr. Khan. “I feel I know what I am doing when I design a guidance system for a rocket because I have the space, propulsion, and other sciences available to tell me what to do. But when you ask me if I am doing a good job as a supervisor of myengineering and technical team, there is nothing, no science of management, to guide me. In my readings of the books on management, I get the idea that management must operate on a closed-system basis, that the best things managers can do are to be friendly, consult with their subordinates on every little thing, and develop strict rules and procedures so that no subordinate can make a mistake”, he added.
“As I think about it, I cannot see much science in management. And I wonder what good management books, articles and management development courses are ever going to do any of us. So we have to wait for centuries when a science of management, as an exact science like physics, is developed?” he exclaimed.
Mr. Khan, having been exposed to a number of management development seminars that had emphasized the usefulness and importance of the management knowledge, was taken aback by Najmi’s outburst. But he was impressed that what his subordinate had said did make a lot of sense. He was, however, at a loss as how to respond to Najmi.
- If you were Mr. Khan, how would you respond to Mr. Najmi’s statement? (10 Marks)
- What would you suggest be done to make management more scientific? (10 Marks)
Solution: The main elements of the Scientific Management are  : “Time studies Functional or specialized supervision Standardization of tools and implements Standardization of work methods Separate Planning function Management by exception principle The use of “slide-rules and similar time-saving devices” Instruction cards for workmen Task allocation and large bonus for successful performance The use of the ‘differential rate’ Mnemonic systems for classifying products and implements A routing system A modern costing system etc. etc. ” Taylor called these elements “merely the elements or details of the mechanisms of management” He saw them as extensions of the four principles of management.
1. The development of a true science
2. The scientific selection of the workman
3. The scientific education and development of the workman
4. Intimate and friendly cooperation between the management and the men.
We can make management more scientific by following above principles.
You have well defined the part of Management as an art Mr. Najmi. You know science is sound systematized body of knowledge based on proper findings and exact principles and is capable of verifications. It is a reservoir of fundamental truths and its findings apply safely in all the situations. In this sense, management is a science as it has also developed some systematized knowledge. Like other sciences, management has also developed certain principles, law, generalizations, which are universal in nature and are applicable wherever the efforts of the people are to be coordinated. But management is not as exact science as other physical sciences like physic, chemistry, biology, astronomy etc. The main reason for the inexactness of science of management is that it deals with the people and it is very difficult to predict their behavior accurately.
So, I consider that business management is a science. Nuclear dynamic is a science. Managing the calories you put in your body is a science (you are using data to make a decision.). No doubt you have skills, competency and great knowledge about your professional but scientific management would give you idea how to use it and get maximum productivity by managing people and resources. Compare your prevailing knowledge with natural resources. The scientific management would give you better idea to increase efficiency of research activities as well as productivity in term of planning, organizing, directing and controlling as things are not going to work. For the successful achievements you need to perform said functions.
I would also add that management guides every employee’s limit, to stay and perform your duties within define parameters. Interact with employees and coordinates to achieve some common goals. As a management expert, “Potter F druker said management can only be tested through the representation of the work”
It is not difficult to find examples of Scientific Management in the 21st Century; the car and computer manufacturing plants, the work environments we go to everyday, the hospitals we are treated in and even some of the restaurants we might eat in, – almost all of them function more efficiently due to the application of Scientific Management. In fact, these methods of working seem so commonplace and so logical to a citizen of the modern world that it is almost impossible to accept that they were innovative only 100 years ago.
Answer for second question:
My suggestions to make management more scientific:
Hiring Qualified Staff
According to my opinion, the first task of the scientific management is to find best one staff member who has relevant qualifications, strong skills & competency and sound hand on experience in the selected job. Eliminate the false, slow or useless ways of work and finally get the best way to perform an operation.
Employees Training & Orientation
The training and orientation programme provides latest information to change prevailing practices & behaviors and enhance employee’s existing skills. Employees should involves in training to raise their skills and offering development opportunities that allow them to apply new skills to make effective decisions regarding the organization as a whole.
To improve the work efficiency as well as productivity, which are expected from the workers must be improved by quarterly training and orientation programme to the relevant employees. It is equally important that the impact of training is evaluated. Otherwise, a business may never really know whether or not the training accomplished what was expected. It was important for us to look at the entire business picture in order to determine where our priorities were.
Friendly Team work:
Gives a basic understanding of what could be done to increase teamwork to benefit an organization. By focusing on different tools and techniques, develops an insight on the approaches that can be taken to reach this important cohesion.
Dealing with change
Employees should have free hand up to certain limits to achieve some common organizational goals by thinking out of box. They put their suggestions and implications directly to their management. Develop new method and techniques to change old method of works. For example, the employees of textiles units are operating whole units through new advance machines and workers. The work are bound to present day to day result in term of manufacturing (# of units produced) and each units have pointed in their benefits to further count for salary and their bonus. This practice must be improved by appointing young and experienced personnel to get maximum results in the given time frame and evaluate day to day progress. The remuneration can be offered on piece rate wages.
The organization can improve their work productivity by replace of employees according to their logical requirements of the business. Young generations are more energetic as well as very active and can boost work efficiency, decline waste of time and resources and using empirical methods to decide what matters, rather than uncritically accepting pre-existing ideas of what matters. It is the supervisor responsibility to watch the quickest way of performing an operation. Eliminate the false, slow or useless ways of work and finally get the best way to perform an operation.
Efficiency of Hierarchy
It is generally made up of subordinates, who follow the orders of supervisors, who in turn report to their own supervisors, and so on. Most such hierarchies allow for promotion upward through the ranks based on merit, seniority or other factors. The progress of management must be evaluated through login system whether they produced their responsibilities well and deliver deliverables. Weekly information sharing and progress report review meetings must be conducted to analyze the true picture of business activities.
Increase Time and Activity of the employees
Time is our most reliable resource. By analyzing time usage on regular basis, it is possible to understand the most efficient way to use time. It is the basic responsibilities of the management to manage worker’s time to some extent for the planning and development or ongoing routine work.
The sequence in which worker perform tasks on an everyday basis has a profound effect. Most workers have the capacity to manage their time better, and doing so makes working way more productive and leisure time more fulfilling.
- Create to do list for self and workers
- Employees must focus tasks ahead
- Plan tomorrow tasks today
- Aim for result within allocated time
- Using time wisely
- Keeping a time log and calculate the work with time (how much time spent and wasted during the activities). Try to control the waste of time by increasing daily tasks and output.
If manager is spending time on tasks that could easily be done a junior or executive, delegate them. This way you can concentrate your energy on the areas in which you are not spending much time such as planning and development.
Every staff member should know common goal of the company. Knowledge, information, expertise and competency are activities which are exchanged within top management and further make a mechanism to achieve basic objective of the organization. I would add my suggestion to extend this policy is to guide all staff and the whole organization for open sharing of information. Some of active members from the workers must take active roles to further shares scientific parameters which have been decided by management to improve efficiency and productivity.
Reward & Incentive Programme
Employees must be encouraged through incentive and rewards which are given in addition to wages. It means additional remuneration or benenfits to an employee in recognition of achievements or better work performance. It would increase productivity, enhance commitement in work performance. Psychological satisfaction, shape the behavior or outlook of subordinate towards work and get the maximum of their capabilities so that they are exploited an utilized maximally.
Retention of Staff Policy
Employees are an organization’s thinker asset that is responsible for the day to day business operation. The organization must take a serious action to retain their most desirable employees by introducing new policies. I am adding some policies which may be offered the employees after the period of five years or gradually increases with the passage of time.
- Education Expenses for their children up to 18 year
- Health and Life insurance for employees and their dependents
- Profit sharing and reinvestment benefits of their dues.
- Provision of Loan facilities without interest.
- A business Promotion Cards to get anything on special discounts from the specific mall.
- Family Joint Trip after a year
- Leave encashment during the celebration of mega events such Eids
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