Among different dimensions of the entrepreneurship, one is gender. Male entrepreneurs dominate the business industry throughout the world. They are equipped with different sources of funds, have technical backgrounds, are more motivated, and get support from the family. But, contrarily, female entrepreneurs are like invisible entrepreneurs. Throughout the history of the entrepreneurship, the potential of women entrepreneurs remained underexplored because the entrepreneurship was considered as a masculine activity. But, nowadays in most of the countries, women entrepreneurs are increasing day by day due to sharp increase in women education, population, and technological advancements which have made it easy to start a venture.
The case of Pakistan
The society of Pakistan is male dominated society. Among different visible characteristics of this society, religious interpretations play an important role in proving superiority of men over women. The people also are not willing to detach themselves from orthodox frame of mind where males enjoy sole authority over the fate of females. Gender discrimination is a routine matter. Women are perceived to perform the informal duties like managing household chores and taking care of children. Here, women have to face certain technical and social barriers while pursuing their career as entrepreneurs.
Though some positive steps have been taken like establishment of Women chamber of Commerce and the First Women Bank, but women entrepreneurs are not much visible in the arena of the business.
1.Keeping in mind the comparison of male and female entrepreneurs, what are the technical and social barriers faced by women entrepreneurs as compared with men in Pakistan?
A-4. Male & Female Entrepreneurs-1
2.Please list down at least five practical suggestions to remove technical and social barriers of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan.
Social and technical barriers for women enterprenuers :
Number one reason why women fail to go on with their chosen business is the leisure gap. Aside from her duties and responsibilities in the business, she is still bound to perform household chores. Female entrepreneurs consider this as one of the most challenging parts because she really needs to make use of her time well.
Glass ceiling is a term which describes the restrictions of the society against female entrepreneurs because of gender. Studies show that men earn higher than women, which is quite unfair on their part.
Other forms of technical barriers are that females face at the course of starting up their business are as follows:
1.difficulty to make time for business necessities and measures,
2.lack of forcefulness
3. existence of the glass ceiling.
Time is a very important factor in business but when the duties of a female at home and at work collides, she needs to sacrifice one thing and that is the business because family still matters the most. For women who would like to go on with their business, they just get a nanny to take good care of their children. They also lack forcefulness in a sense that they sell their products at lower prices for fear of driving customers and potential buyers away. As compared to men businessmen, the society got used to the idea that it is alright for them to charge higher on products than what women entrepreneurs should do. Even though the world is in its modernity already.
The lack of knowledge about the financing strategies of women business owners
has given rise to a mythology about women entrepreneurs and their access to financing in
general, and equity capital in particular. Women-owned businesses are perceived as risky
investments because of their choice of industry, firm size, capital requirements, growth
expectations and ownership/control issues.
Female venture initiators have more trouble getting access to capital perhaps
because of a lack of confidence shown by banks, suppliers, and clients.
Another struggle for women business owners is related to balancing family issues.
Work-family conflict results from inter-role conflict caused by incompatible or conflicting
pressures from work and family domains, including job-family role strain, work-family
interference and work-nonwork role conflict