How do you see Jinnah’s constitutional approach in securing the interests of the Muslims of the Subcontinent? Write any five relevant points. 10 Marks
Solution : Long before the British invaded and seized control of the subcontinent, Muslim armies had conquered the settled populations in the rolling flat land that stretched from the foothills of the Hindu Kush to the city of Delhi and the Indo-Gangetic Plain and eastward to Bengal. The last and most successful of the Muslim conquerors was the Mughal dynasty (1526–1857), which eventually spread its authority over virtually the entire subcontinent. British superiority coincided with Mughal decline, and, following a period of European successes and Mughal failures on the battlefield, the British brought an end to Mughal power. The last Mughal emperor was exiled following the failed Indian Mutiny of 1857–58.
Less than three decades after that revolt, the Indian National Congress was formed to give political representation to British India’s indigenous people. Although membership in the Congress was open to all, Hindu participants overwhelmed the Muslim members. The All India Muslim League, organized in 1906, aimed to give Muslims a voice so as to counter what was then perceived as the growing influence of the Hindus under British rule. Mohammed Ali Jinnah, earlier a prominent Muslim member of the Congress, assumed leadership of the league following his break with Congress leader Mohandas K. Gandhi. A firm believer in the Anglo-Saxon rule of law and a close associate of Iqbal, Jinnah questioned the security of the Muslim minority in an India dominated by essentially Hindu authority. Declaring Islam was endangered by a revived Hindu assertiveness, Jinnah and the league posited a “two-nation theory” that argued Indian Muslims were entitled to—and therefore required—a separate, self-governing state in a reconstituted subcontinent.
What is the role of ideology in the creation of Pakistan? Justify your answer with five relevant points. 5 Marks
Pakistan is an Ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic ideology.Its basic principle being:
“The only sovereigner is Allah”.
Islam acted as a nation building force before the establishment of Pakistan.Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles.They should have all the resources at the disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization.Quid-e-Azam once said:
“Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam”.
From the above statement ,it is clear that Ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one.
The fundamental concept of ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are a separate nation having their own culture,literature ,religion and way of life.They cannot be merged in any other nation.They should be able to develop their culture and religious traditions in an Islamic State and they should be able to create a true Islamic society for themselves.
Thus the ideology of Pakistan which developed through the period of Mohammad Bin Qasim and others and followed by political leaders like Quid-e-Azam was materialized in 1947.