PAK301 Pakistan Studies Assignment 1 Fall 2013

Examine the role of Quaid e Azam as the ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity especially in the context of Lucknow Pact (1916).       


Jinnah started his political career in 1906, by joining the Congress. The Hindu centric policies of Gandhi forced Jinnah to leave Congress. He joined the Muslim league in 1913 and became the president at the 1916 session in Lucknow. An agreement reached between the Congress and Muslim league at the joint session of both the parties held in Lucknow in the year 1916.Jinnah made both the parties reach an agreement to pressure the British govt. to adopt a more liberal approach to India and gave Indians more authority to run their country beside safeguarding the basic Muslim demands. Jinnah himself was the mastermind and architect of this pact.

Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim League in 1913 after that he started work for Hindu Muslim unity, understanding and for co-operation, In 1915, the annual meeting of congress and Muslim league were held in Bombay (Mumbai), because of his effort and again second meeting of both parties were held at Lucknow, were a written agreement were signed between two parties which in history of sub-continent is called Lucknow Pact.

Reasons for the Pact:

The Lucknow Pact was an agreement between the Indian National Congress, led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and the All-India Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The agreement was adopted by the Congress and the League in their separate meeting in Lucknow in December 1916.Muslim league and congress so as to pressurize the British government to give the locals the right to run their own country. The main aspects of the pact were that the British should grant the right of self-government to the Indians and the large number of Muslims living in the region should be given a one third representation in the government. The pact in detail described the system of government at the federal and provincial level that needed to be implemented. The Lucknow pact lasted just eight years but it is considered to be an important turning point in the history because this was the first platform where the two parties had cooperated with each other. This was an effort to liberalize the region form the British control.

Jinnah Joined The League:

Jinnah is considered to be the founding father of Pakistan. His followers called him Quaid -e-Azam which translates as Great Leader.

Jinnah joined the Indian National Congress but resented the fact that it was dominated by Hindus. He also failed to support Gandhi’s belief in the use of civil disobedience. In the meantime, Jinnah joined the Muslim League. Muhammed Ali Jinnah entry into the league also helped to change the attitudes of the Muslims towards the Hindus. He worked day and nights for Hindu –Muslim unity and earned the title of “Ambassador of unity”. Ultimately his efforts bore fruit and congress and League sessions, he advocated the Hindu-Muslim unity by saying,

“Towards the Hindus our attitude should be of goodwill and brotherly feelings, cooperation in the cause of our Motherland should be our guiding principle. India`s real progress can only be achieved by a true understanding and harmonious relations between the two great sister communities.”

Phase of Muslim League & Indian National Congress

The phase mainly know for the cooperation that existed between the two parties during the Lucknow Pact, Non-cooperation moment & Khailafat moment, The period between1919-20s saw the most harmonious period between the two parties which were never visible in the feature. During this period both the congress as well as Muslim League cooperated with each other which turned to be the biggest threat to the British Government which made all efforts harmony. This marked the third phase of their relationship which was mainly marked by distrust, conflicts as well as bloodshed.

The Main Clauses of Lucknow Pact were:

  1. The same method should be adopted for the Executive Councils of Governors.
  2. The India Council must be abolished.
  3. The salaries of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs should be paid by the British government and not from Indian funds.
  4. Of the two Under Secretaries, one should be Indian.
  5. The executive should be separated from the judiciary.
  6. The number of Muslims in the provincial legislatures should be laid down province by province.
  7. There shall be self govt. in India.
  8. Muslims should be given 1/3 representation in Central Govt.
  9. There should be separate electorates for all communities until they ask for joint electorate.

10. System of weight-age should be adopted.

11. Term of Legislative Council should be 5 years.

12. Half of the members of Imperial Legislative Council must be Indians.