Question No. 1 5 Marks
Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founding father of Pakistan after coming into politics struggled hard for Hindu Muslim unity when he was a member of both organizations Congress and Muslim League. He resigned from the membership of Congress in 1920, and started working for the betterment and welfare of the Muslim community of the Subcontinent. What were the main events in the history of Subcontinent that led to the transformation of Jinnah from an Indian nationalist to Muslim Nationalist?
Justify your answer with at least 5 such incidents:
Jinnah returned to India in 1896 as a qualified barrister. He faced three years of uphill struggle before he established himself as Bombay’s leading Muslim lawyer. It was only when his career was thus assured that he entered politics. His first appearance was at the 1906 Calcutta session of the Congress in which he acted as private secretary to its President, Dadabhai Naoroji. There he established links with several Congress leaders, most notably with the influential Gopal Krishna Gokhale, whom he accompanied on a visit to England in April 1913; by that date Jinnah had emerged as one of the leading Muslim figures in the Congress and was regarded by many as its future leader.
Until 1913 Jinnah had steered well clear of the main Muslim political organisation, the Muslim League. This had been founded in 1906 in order to safeguard Muslim political rights. Its outlook was conservative and loyal to the British and it reflected in the main the priorities of the Muslim educated elite of the United Provinces, from where it drew its leaders and its greatest support. Elsewhere in India it had little influence. In April 1913 Jinnah agreed to lead the Muslim League in the hope of bringing its views into line with the Congress. He arranged its 1915 session to coincide with the Congress’ and played a leading role in the negotiations which took place between the two parties. They resulted in the famous Lucknow Pact of 1916, the only occasion in modern lndian history in which the Muslim League and the Congress came to a voluntary agreement about the political future of India. The Pact granted the Muslims many of the safeguards which they had demanded, including separate electorates and ‘weightage’ in the Legislative Councils of those provinces in which they formed a minority of the population. However, despite the hopes which it raised, the Lucknow Pact had only a temporary effect on Muslim-Hindu relations.
It only represented the agreement of the tiny political elite of the two communities and was therefore vulnerable to the emergence into politics of new social groups and classes. Jinnah and many others who believed in a liberal constitutional approach to the communal and national issues, felt ill at ease when Gandhi launched his first Civil Disobedience Campaigns against the British in the aftermath of the First World War. Jinnah refused to abandon his traditional approach to politics and resigned from the Indian National Congress shortly after Gandhi had gained control of it at the December 1920 Nagpur session.
The new political environment created by the British constitutional reforms of 1919 represented, however, a far greater setback to Jinnah’s career than Gandhi’s temporary radicalisation of Indian politics. As a result of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms, such subjects of provincial administration as education, local self-government and public works were transferred to the control of ministers responsible to elected assembly members. This system, known as dyarchy, offered great opportunities for politicians with strong local support. For those like Jinnah, who had no landed or tribal powerbase, it spelt disaster: throughout his career he had operated at the All-India level of politics; under dyarchy, however, real power and influence lay at the local level. For a time he attempted to soldier on as leader of an independent group in the Central Assembly and as a broker between the powerful local Muslim politicians and the Congress during constitutional negotiations. Even this role was denied him after the rejection of his proposals by the Congress and the all-party scheme produced by Motilal Nehru in 1928. His mediatory role was increasingly taken over by Mian Fazl-i-Husain, the Punjabi Muslim leade whose strong provincial powerbase and membership of the Viceroy’s Executive Council gave him much greater authority in negotiating on behalf of the Muslims.
Jinnah settled once more in London in 1931, determined to retire from politics and to concentrate on his legal career. He was only left in peace, however, until 1933 when Nawab Liaqat Ali Khan, his future right-hand man and Premier of Pakistan, visited him in his Hampstead house. Liaqat stressed the Indian Muslims’ need for Jinnah’s experienced leadership. Jinnah was given a further indication of the importance which was attached to this in October 1934, when the Muslims of Bombay elected him in his absence as their representative for the Central Legislative Assembly. However, it was not these entreaties which decided Jinnah to return but rather that the 1935 Government of India Act presented him with an opportunity to regain his former influence. Jinnah arrived back in Bombay in October 1935. Within twelve years he was to become the Governor-General of an independent state of Pakistan.
Question No. 2 5 Marks
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?
Justify your answer with at least five advantages of learning English with special focus on the state of English as a discipline in Pakistan.
The English language is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world, second only to Mandarin. That English is used almost everywhere is only one of the many advantages of learning the language.
Business: English is the primary language of business throughout the world. Most international business transactions, including emails, memos, reports and contracts, are written in English.
Employment:The ability to fluently speak the English language in addition to your native language can be beneficial if you’re seeking job opportunities with international companies. The ability to speak a language spoken by most business people can place you a step ahead of the competition.
Movies: Major Hollywood movies have dialogue in English. The plot of these movies is easier to follow if the person watching the movie speaks English. Subtitles in other languages can sometimes cause the meanings of words to be lost in the translation, and they can be a distraction or even block the action taking place on the screen.
Travel: The English language is predominantly spoken throughout the world, so international travelers may find that speaking English can make their travels a little easier. Most hotel and restaurant employees, as well as store merchants, probably speak English to some degree.
Computers: Most software programs are written in English. Those seeking to expand their computer knowledge can find the ability to read and understand the English language invaluable.DOWNLOAD SOLUTION HERE