1. Fill in the Blanks:
Each question carries one mark. (5 Marks)
The Objectives Resolution was approved on 12th March 1949
The Constitution of 1962 was enforced on 8thJune1962
Maulvi Tamizuddin challenged the dissolution of Constituent Assembly in 1954.
The Constitution of 1956 had only One House parliament.
One Unit Scheme of West Pakistan was introduced on 30th,October,1955
2. Write a note on Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula (1953). (5 Marks)
Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula (1953)
Muhammad Ali Bogra ( Bogra ( British India ), 19 October 1909 – Dhaka ( Pakistan ), 23 January 1963 ) was a Pakistani politician. He was Prime Minister of Pakistan and served in several ministerial posts.
[ edit ] Life
Bogra was born in the state of Bengal (now Bangladesh ). He studied at the University of Calcutta . After his studies he was elected to the Parliament of Bengal. He then became Minister of Health and later Minister of Finance. With the founding of the state of Pakistan took his seat in parliament, but after a disagreement with Muhammad Ali Jinnah , the first Governor-General , he was sent overseas to serve as ambassador to Burma , Canada and twice in the United States .
In 1953 he was appointed by Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad moved forward to Khawaja Nazimuddin replaced as prime minister. At that time he enjoyed little prominence in political circles. As prime minister, he designed a plan for a bicameral system . The House of Lords would consist of fifty seats for each state ten. That would mean that there are 40 seats for politicians from West Pakistan and 10 seats for politicians from East Pakistan would be. Also, a bearing housing are made up of 300 seats. For politicians from West Pakistan would be 135 seats available and politicians from East Pakistan would get 165 seats. The plan also contained a proposal that if the Prime Minister of East Pakistan, the president of West Pakistan should come, and vice versa. With these proposals he wanted to do something about the growing divide between West and East Pakistan. (After several wars Bangladesh would eventually split off from Pakistan). The plan was very popular, but was ruined by Muhammad when he dissolved Parliament in 1953.
In 1955 Bogra by the new Governor General Iskandar Mirza was forced to resign. He was again ambassador to the United States. In 1962 he was again Minister of Finance. There he remained until his death in 1963.
Muhammad Ali Bogra While take charge as Prime Minister of Pakistan, Bogra declared that formulation of the Constitution was his primary target. He worked hard on this project and within six months of assuming power, came out with a constitutional formula. His constitutional proposal, known as the Bogra Formula, was presented before the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on October 7, 1953. The plan proposed for a Bicameral Legislature with equal representation for all the five provinces of the country in the Upper House. A total of 50 seats were reserved for the Upper House. The 300 seats for the Lower House were to be allocated to the provinces on the basis of proportionate representation. One hundred and sixty five seats were reserved for East Pakistan, 75 for Punjab, 19 for Sindh and Khairpur, 24 for N. W. F. P., tribal areas and the states located in N. W. F. P., and 17 for Baluchistan, Baluchistan States Union, Bhawalpur and Karachi.
In this way East Pakistan was given more seats in the Lower House than the combined number of seats reserved for the federal capital, the four provinces and the princely states of the Western Wing. So in all, both the wings were to have 175 seats each in the two houses of the Legislative Assembly. Both the houses were given equal power, and in case of a conflict between the two houses, the issue was to be presented before a joint session.
In order to prevent permanent domination by any wing, a provision was made that if the head of the state was from West Pakistan, the Prime Minister was to be from East Pakistan, and vice versa. The two houses of the Legislative Assembly formed the Electoral College for the presidential elections and the President was to be elected for a term of 5 years. In place of the Board of Ulmaa, the Supreme Court was given the power to decide if a law was in accordance with the basic teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah or not.
Unlike the two reports of the Basic Principles Committee, the Bogra Formula was appreciated by different sections of the society. There was great enthusiasm amongst the masses as they considered it as a plan that could bridge the gulf between the two wings of Pakistan and would act as a source of unity for the country. The proposal was discussed in the Constituent Assembly for 13 days, and a committee was set to draft the constitution on November 14, 1953. However, bemafore the constitution could be finalized, the Assembly was dissolved by Ghulam Muhammad, the then Governor General of Pakistan.
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