PSC201 International Relations Assignment 1 Solution Fall 2012

The US imperialism seems to be heading no where. They have been ill served by its diplomats, soldiers and spies. It has been a resoundingly disastrous expedition. The militancy is still alive and the region still destabilized. Yet, the US/Nato/Isaf combine feel obliged to declare victory and go home. They are leaving behind an unfinished agenda, a task unaccomplished. (The Nation)
Pakistan on the other side will be directly affected by the unfolded war. Likewise, in the soviet war when large sum of refugees were left at the cost of Pakistan. Crimes and heroin culture took birth that is still having strong roots in Pakistan. To avoid the same, Pakistan and the coalition partners have to shape future looking to the past.

Identify the United States manifest interests in Afghanistan.
 Analyze United States current status in Afghanistan and state weather it is leading towards failure in the region? State examples America’s failure in Afghanistan spells the end of West’s dominance in Eurasia
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
“The West has already failed in Afghanistan, just as the Soviets failed in the 1980s and the British way back in the nineteenth century.”–John Humphrys

After having fought for more than a decade in Afghanistan, America has yet to show any considerable gains for its brutal occupation. Nonetheless, there are some diehard American strategists who beg to differ, and argue that America has achieved its primary objective, which was to establish a few military bases in Afghanistan to counter Russia, China and the future Caliphate state for the eventual supremacy over Eurasia. But, even this lofty ideal when measured against the reality on the ground appears too remote to be categorized as a useful accomplishment. On the contrary, the rampant instability in Afghanistan not only puts into jeopardy the viability of such strategic objectives, but more importantly raises questions about how long can America afford to stay stuck in the Afghan quagmire and continue to post failure after failure.

Clues about this very prospect were provided at the NATO summit convened in Chicago back in May 2012. Speaking about America’s ubiquitous nemesis the Taleban, Obama candidly admitted that they were a hardened opponent and whatever gains NATO had made could easily be undone. He said,”The Taliban is still a robust enemy, and the gains are still fragile. But think about it. We’ve been there now 10 years. Ten years in a country that’s very different, that’s a strain, not only on our folks but also on that country, which at a point is going to be very sensitive about its own sovereignty.” Just how much time does the world’s lone super power need with all of its sophisticated weaponry to defeat a rag tag army of no more than 25,000 or so? America has assembled under its supervision 400,000 soldiers-not to mentions the tens of thousands of private contractors- on both side of the Afghan-Pakistan border, and after several years of warfare it is still unable to crush them. Outgunned and outmanned Taliban are definitely proving to be more than a robust enemy.

Equally unfathomable is that it has taken several years for the US to accept the fact that NATO is not only fighting the Taleban but also the Afghan people. The reference to “be very sensitive about its own sovereignty” is an admission by president Obama that NATO faces a popular resistance which cuts right across ethnic fault lines and trumps traditional tribal loyalties.

Another fiasco of America’s Afghan war is its exorbitant cost, which has placed a huge toll on the defense budget and this has been further exacerbated by the economic crisis of 2008. America has spent circa $550 billion on the Afghan war since 2001. Other NATO member states like Britain have spent in the region of $20 billion. Yet despite squandering billions of dollars of tax payers’ money, NATO has very little to show. Karzai’s government is corrupt to the core and hated by ordinary Afghans. Karzai’s writ does not extend beyond parts of Kabul, and if it does exist elsewhere, it is totally reliant on foreign forces. According to some estimates Taliban controls around 80% of Afghanistan and this probably explains why it is so difficult for NATO to hold on to territorial gains. All attempts to coopt the Taliban into a political solution have also failed. The Financial Times summed up West’s sorry state: “Five years ago the Americans were refusing to speak to the Taliban. Now the Taliban are refusing to speak to the Americans. That is a measure of how the balance of power has shifted in Afghanistan. The western intervention there has failed.” Added to this is the human toll on NATO forces, which cannot be quantified in monetary terms. So it came as no surprise to find that the joint communiqué issued at the end of the Chicago summit expressed the collective desire of all the NATO countries to draw the curtain on their Afghan misadventure. The statement read: ‘After 10 years of war and with the global economy reeling, the nations of the West no longer want to pay, either in treasure or in lives, the costs of their efforts in a place that for centuries has resisted foreign attempts to tame It’.

Allah (SWT) says: “Indeed, those who disbelieve spend their wealth to avert [people] from the way of Allah . So they will spend it; then it will be for them[source of] regret; then they will be overcome. And those who have disbelieved – unto Hell they will be gathered. ” [TMQ 8:36]

Whilst 2014 (a date revised several times) is the final withdrawal date for most NATO countries, America and her junior partner Britain both steeped in arrogance have still not learnt their lesson and plan to stay beyond this date. No doubt they will do their utmost to delay the inevitable collapse of Karzai’s government and try and save face with their domestic populace. But the writing is on the wall; America and NATO are heading for a catastrophic defeat and no matter how hard they try to dress up their failings their only success will be to unite and embolden Afghans along with their brethren across the border in Pakistan to claim the scalp of Pax-Americana and deal a devastating blow to NATO’s first ever mission in Eurasia.

“On that Day shall the believers rejoice- With the help of Allah, He helps whom He will, and He is Exalted In Might, Most Merciful.” [30: 4-5]

This Article can also help you in solving this assignment http://www.thenation.com/blog/156601/americas-failed-war-attrition-afghanistan#

 Keeping in view the negative effects of the United States war on terror on the Pakistan’s economy, society and law and order. How could Pakistan de-alienate itself from the war in order to focus on its internal affairs? Give your suggestions.


“Pakistan has suffered a loss of US $ 67-68 billion since 2001 but we have been unable to explain this heavy loss to international community”, Ashfaq Hassan Khan former adviser to finance ministry said. The attack on USA has put a negative impact on the economy of Pakistan as well. Former Finance Minister Dr.Salman Shah said after 9/11, Pakistan suffered a lot in terms of negative investment and negative exports besides severe damages to infrastructure due to terrorist attacks in its major cities killing and maiming thousands of people. The 9/11 episode inflicted disastrous damages to Pakistan, both socially and economically, and the country is still bearing its aftershocks even after the passage of one decade, said Ashfaq Hassan. “We are a peace-loving and hardworking nation and abhor terrorism and extremism”, remarked Salman Shah.

Shah called for joint efforts to improve a soft image of the country as a peace loving nation at global level for attracting more investments into the country and called for eliminating the menace of terrorism and extremism from the society. The war against extremism and militancy have affected Pakistan’s exports, prevented inflow of foreign investment and affected the pace of privatization programme. It slowed the overall economic activity,reduced import demand, reduced tax collection,expenditure over-run on additional security spending. Besides domestic tourism industry suffered badly due to this war while thousands of more jobs could have been created had economic activity not slowed.

Dr. Ashfaq called upon the top leadership and economic managers including foreign minister to explain properly the material and human losses caused to Pakistan at international forums like UN, IMF, World bank meetings and other foras due to its role as frontline state against war on terrorism. “We have lost 30,000 to 35,000 people including the personals of law enforcementagencies besides damages to schools , hospitals and other infrastructure facilities in the country due to participation in war against terrorism”, he remarked.

Senator Haji Ghulam Ali President of Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FPCCI) said that Pakistan’s participation as frontline state has negatively impactedtrade, industry and economy of the country. He was of the view that Pakistan’s sacrifices in war on terror were tremendous but the financial reward from the US against these sacrifices was “nominal”. The examples of Reconstruction Opportunity Zones (ROZs) promised by the US for the help of affected people of the war on terror but no progress has been made so far in this regard, senator Ali said.

Senator Haji Ghulam Ali said that European Union granted free trade facility to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Srilanka and Maldives but despite sacrifices this facility was withdrawn for Pakistan. He regretted that the foreign debt of Egypt and other countries were written off but Pakistan was not granted this facility.

Former President Islamabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI) Zahid Maqbool said that the incident of 9/11 had totally changed the social and financial system of the world especially of Pakistan. He said that even if the terrorism was eliminated, its impact would last for several years to come. Maqbool said the government should tell the whole world about the details of losses it faced due to war on terrorism and seek the assistance to counter the losses.

According to official sources, Pakistan’s economy is under pressure due to war against militancy. The economy was subjected to enormous direct and indirect costs which continued to rise from $ 2.669 billion in 2001-02 to $ 13.6 billion by 2009-10, projected to rise to $ 17.8 billion in the current financial year (2010-11) and moving forward, the direct and indirect costs to the economy is most likely to rise further.

Pakistan has given a reward in form of economic support. According to Congressional Research Services, (2005) US have given $ 5.174 billion to Pakistan during the period of 2001-2008. Pakistan receives $100 million each month as a union support fund. (Rehana)The account of secret move of money is openly not obtainable to the public of Pakistan. According to Pakistan Economic Survey,(2005)It was renowned that Pakistan has turn out to be the main receiver of financial help in arrival for its hold up of the U.S. antiterrorism movement in Afghanistan. In malice of this approval, the financial state of Pakistan did not demonstrate wanted development. In the fiscal year 2001, the relation of price rises was 4.4% and in economic year 2006, it was greater than before to 7.9%. The US help data for 2001-2007 reproduce 1.2 billion dollars in FMF (Foreign Military Financing) 1.9 billion dollars in financial hold up finance, 111.7 million for youngster continued existence and physical condition and a voucher of 64 million dollars for the encouragement of democratic system.

By Amir Mir (The news, 2009) by giving this aid to Pakistan the force on Pakistan ‘do more’ has been increased after 2006. At last American has started drone attacks in Pakistani area .From January 14 ,2006 up to April 8,2009 total 60 attacks has been made by drones plane ,only 10 missile achieve their target killing 14 required al-Qaeda best leader, as well as 687 blameless people were killed. The achievement proportion of the US predator strikes thus comes to not more than six per cent. Pakistan do their best in war against terrorism,Amir wasim (Dawn news,2010) describe the statistic data that Pakistan arrested 12,800 supposed terrorist, 75 of them are form Osama organisation and 9,739 local Taliban or members of other disqualified organisation, were in prison during operations made by police force agencies crossways the state in 2009. Muhamad (Dawn news,2009) collected the whole 2008 data and describe that the figures are freezing and incredible and should create any Pakistani be seated up: in 2008 the country saw 2,148 radical attacks, which caused 6,825 wounded � 2,267 of them deadly. Amir wasim(Dawn news,2007) clamed than terrorist attacks have caused a loss of billion of rupees.