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SOC401 Cultural Anthropology Assignment No 1 Solution Fall 2012

Dia Mir Bhasha dam is located on Indus River, about 315 km upstream of Tarbela Dam, 165 km downstream of the Northern Area capital Gilgit and 40 km downstream of Chilas. The dam will impound 15% of the annual river flow. The dam project would cover an area o f 110 km and extend 100 km upstream of the dam site up to Raikot Bridge on Karakoram Highway (KKH).
Suppose, being an anthropologist you have been hired to work on the project and prepare a preliminary report of the area;

• How would you prepare the report by following Ethno scientists’ methodology? 5

Ethnomethodology is a branch of the social sciences which is concerned with exploring how people interact with the world and make sense of reality. It is not designed to provide people with judgments on human behavior or its causes, but rather to explain how people interact with each other and with society at large. Many people engage in a small degree of ethnomethodology every day, even though they aren’t aware of it; for example, a parent explaining a concept to a child usually thinks about the way in which the child approaches the world and processes information to put the concept in terms the child will understand.

Researchers in this field are often interested in the conventions of society, and the rules which people use to place themselves and others in social contexts. An ethnomethodologist might, for example, look at social cues which people use to determine social class and occupation when interacting with someone for the first time. Ethnomethodology is also concerned with general social knowledge and concepts which are widely understood both in larger societies and smaller subsets of society.

This field of study owes much to Harold Garfinkel, the researcher who coined the term in 1967 and started to lay out some of the ground rules and concepts which continue to be used in ethnomethodology today. In addition to being a topic of general interest to sociologists and other social sciences, this field also has a number of very useful applications.

Diamer-Bhasha Dam is the name of a dam that has been planned in the Northern Areas of Pakistan on the River Indus.

The President of Pakistan during his national address on 17th January 2006 announced the decision of Government to construct 5 multi-purpose storages in the country during next 10 -12 years. Diamer Basha Dam Project will be undertaken in the first phase. Work on the project started after the ground-breaking ceremony by the President of Pakistan. On completion of detailed design and tender documents, the construction of Diamer-Bhasha Dam – the world’s highest Roller Compacted Concrete Dam will commence.

The project

The project is located on Indus River, about 315 km upstream of Tarbela Dam, 165 km downstream of the Northern Area capital Gilgit and 40 km downstream of Chilas. The proposed dam would have a maximum height of 270 m, and impound a reservoir of about 7.5 million acre feet (MAF), with live storage of more than 6.4 MAF. Mean annual discharge of Indus River at the site is 50 MAF. Thus the dam will impound 15% of the annual river flow. The dam project would cover an area of 110 km2 and extend 100 km upstream of the damsite up to Raikot Bridge on Karakoram Highway (KKH).

Need for the Project

Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy. Pakistan today is among one of the World’s fastest growing population, now estimated as over 150 million. Due to lack of large river regulation capability through sizeable storages, the country is already facing serious shortages in food grains. Given the present trend, Pakistan could soon become one of the food deficit countries in the near future. Therefore, there is a dire need to build storages for augmenting agriculture production.

Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma reservoirs have already lost about 5 MAF due to sedimentation. It is estimated that by year 2012, this loss would increase to 6 MAF, almost equal to the original combined capacity of Mangla and Chashma reservoirs. Due to complete stoppage of any sizable multi-purpose storage development after commissioning of Tarbela Dam in 1976, sustainability of existing irrigated agriculture of Pakistan is in serious jeopardy. The President has taken a very bold initiative by taking the decision to construct Diamer Basha Dam Project.

The present demand of electricity in country is above 17,000 MW, which is estimated to cross 22,000 MW by the year 2010. A large-scale injection of power thus becomes inevitable. Hydropower will provide the required electricity at affordable price. Contribution of 4500 MW power from Diamer Basha Dam will go a long way in alleviating this situation.

Environment & Resettlement*

(After Reducing Dam Height by 10m)

• No. of villages affected 30 • No. of Houses Affected 2200 • Population affected 22,000

• Agricultural land submerged 1,500 acres (6.1 km2) • Area under reservoir 25,000 acres (100 km2) • Length of KKH submerged 100 km • Proposed new settlements 9 • Infrastructure Electricity, roads, water supply, schools, health centres etc.

Subject to refinement during detailed design stage
Salient Features

• LOCATION: The Dam will be located on the River Indus in Northern Pakistan, about 315 km upstream of Tarbela Dam, 165 km downstream of the Northern Areas capital of Gilgit and 40 km downstream of Chilas.

• MAIN DAM Maximum Height: 270 m Type Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC)

• DIVERSION SYSTEM 2 No. Diversion tunnels 1 No. Diversion canal Upstream and Downstream Cofferdams

• MAIN SPILLWAY No. of gates 9 Size of gate 16.5 ? 15.0 m

• RESERVOIR LEVEL 1160 m Gross capacity 7.3 MAF Live capacity 6.4 MAF Min. operation level El. 1060 m

• OUTLETS Intermediate level 8 Low level 4

• POWERHOUSE(S) 2 Total installed capacity 4500 MW Location and type Toe of the Dam (one each on the right and left side) No. of units 8, each of 560 MW Average generation 16,500 Gwh/year

• ESTIMATED COST (YEAR 2008) US$12 Billion

Total Cost & Capacity of the Project

The cost of the Diamer-Bhahsa dam is $12 billion (2008) and it will have a storage capacity of 6.34 MAF as against the earlier proposed 7.34 MAF. However, it will have a power generation capacity of 4,500 megawatts.

A huge amount of Rs 27.824 billion is required for the acquisition of land and resettlement of the people to be affected in the wake of the construction of the dam. Under the proposed project, Rs 10.76 billion will be spent for the acquisition of agriculture-barren land, tree and nurseries and Rs 1.638 billion to be utilised for properties & infrastructure, Rs 8.8 billion for establishment of nine model villages, Rs 62.119 million for pay & allowances for administrative arrangements, and Rs.17.7 million for contingent administrative expenses. The project also includes an escalation cost of Rs 2.234 billion at the rate of 6 per cent per year for five years and interest of Rs 4.309 billion during the implementation at the rate of 9 per cent.

It is expected that the detailed drawings of the dam would be completed by March 2008, immediately after which construction work shall begin.

The PKR 894.25 billion dam project in the Northern Areas, approved by the Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (Ecnec), the Planning Commission had sought mandatory clearance from IRSA (Indus River System Authority) for moving ahead with the dam project. After reviewing the detailed project feasibility, IRSA cleared the project if the government met three conditions.

Diamer Bhasha Dam Project will have a foreign funding component of PKR 312.94 billion. Finance Minister Shaukat Tarin chaired the meeting. The construction of the dam on the Indus, some 400kms from Islamabad, would begin by October next year and be completed in eight to 10 years.

Let me explain about this project with the help of wikipedia that the project is located on Indus River, about 315 km upstream of Tarbela Dam, 165 km downstream of the Northern Area capital Gilgit and 40 km downstream of Chilas. The proposed dam would have a maximum height of 270 m, and impound a reservoir of about 7,500,000 acre feet (9.25×109 m3), with live storage of more than 6,400,000 acre feet (7.89×109 m3). Mean annual discharge of Indus River at the site is 50,000,000 acre feet (6.2×1010 m3). Thus the dam will impound 15% of the annual river flow. The dam project would cover an area of 110 km2 and extend 100 km upstream of the damsite up to Raikot Bridge on Karakoram Highway (KKH).

Its payback period will be 30 years. They termed it a lifeline project for the country.

‘This is the biggest project ever approved in the history of Pakistan. We spent 33 years in discussions while the country’s biggest dam’s capacity was declining because of sedimentation. We have begun installing major hydropower projects to overcome the energy crisis.’Mr Ashraf said.

The 272-metre high concrete dam would have a storage capacity of 6.4 million acre-feet and it would irrigate more than 33 million acres. It would also help reduce sedimentation in Tarbela Dam, the minister said. In reply to a question, he said the bidding process would be transparent. He said the National Highway Authority would start widening roads for transporting equipment and installation work. You can find out complete feasibility report of

Features:

LOCATION: The Dam will be located on the River Indus in Northern Pakistan, about 315 km upstream of Tarbela Dam, 165 km downstream of the Northern Areas capital of Gilgit and 40 km downstream of Chilas.
MAIN DAM Maximum Height: 270 m Type Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC)
DIVERSION SYSTEM 2 No. Diversion tunnels 1 No. Diversion canal Upstream and Downstream Cofferdams

MAIN SPILLWAY No. of gates 9 Size of gate 16.5 Χ 15.0 m
RESERVOIR LEVEL 1160 m Gross capacity 7,300,000 acre feet (9.00×109 m3) Live capacity 6,400,000 acre feet (7.89×109 m3) Min. operation level El. 1060 m
OUTLETS Intermediate level 8 Low level 4

POWERHOUSE(S) 2 Total installed capacity 4500 MW Location and type Toe of the Dam (one each on the right and left side) No. of units 8, each of 560 MW Average generation 16,500 Gwh/year
ESTIMATED COST (YEAR 2008) US$12 Billion
Benefits:

Availability of about 6,400,000 acre feet (7.89×109 m3) annual surface face water storage for supplementing irrigation supplies during low flow periods
Harnessing of renewable source of clean and cheap energy through installed capacity of 4500 MW
Reduction of dependence on thermal power, thus saving foreign exchange
Employment opportunity, particularly to the locals, during the construction and operation
Creation of massive infrastructure leading to overall socio-economic uplift of the area and standard of living of people.
• Which specific aspects would you consider to make an assessment of the project? 5

 
• What could be the possible benefits of this evaluation? 5

Project Benefits

• Availability of about 6.4 MAF annual surface face water storage for supplementing irrigation supplies during low flow periods • Harnessing of renewable source of clean and cheap energy through installed capacity of 4500 MW • Reduction of dependence on thermal power, thus saving foreign exchange • Employment opportunity, particularly to the locals, during the construction and operation • Creation of massive infrastructure leading to overall socio-economic uplift of the area and standard of living of people.

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